Use of metaphors LO5439

Wiggo Hustad (
Thu, 08 Feb 1996 10:27:06 +0100

Replying to LO5424 --

Replying to LO5380, and LO5424/5314

In their discussion Michael McMaster and Enrique Fuentes mentiones the
concepts metaphor and analogy. In his article "A Dynamic Theory of
Organizational Knowledge Creation" (organization Science 1/1994) Ikujiro
Nonaka is talking about four modes of knowledge conversion (p. 18). The
conversion mode "externalization" is based much on the use of metaphors to
open up the "room for free association" (p. 20 - 21). Analogies bring
these "ideas" back to something understood. In my own research I'm trying
to link these (and other) concepts to the development of different types
of knowledge tied to different types of action. The answer is still
"blowin' in the wind", but the storm is calming...

Host's Note: Let's see... Dusting off my copy of Nonaka and Takeuchi
(1995), their "externalization" is the conversion of tacit knowledge into
explicit knowledge, for example, writing out a "how-to" manual for
something you know how to do very well, like tying your necktie or riding
a bicycle.

Wiggo, would you say more about how you see the use of metaphor in this
part of Nonaka's picture? I'm not making the connection.

(My ref is Nonaka and Takeuchi, _The Knowledge Creating Company_, New
York, Oxford Univ Press, 1995, which is different but roughly
contemporaneous with the article you mention.

-- Rick Karash,, host for learning-org

- wiggo

Wiggo Hustad (

Organization and Learning Western Norway Research Institute N-5800 Sogndal, NORWAY

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