Goal Setting LO7450 -Summary

Effective Organizational Systems (eos@leonardo.net)
Mon, 22 Apr 1996 09:26:50 -0700

Replying to LO6517 --

Posted by Valerio Pascotto
eos@leonardo.net (Effective Organizational Systems)

[Host Note: Thanks, Valerio for posting this summary. The original
inquiry was April 7 "Goal Setting Inputs LO6517". ...Rick]


Date: Mon, 08 Apr 96 17:05:38 EDT
From: "Michele L. Mikkelsen" <MMIKKEL@american.edu>
Organization: The American University
Subject: your request about information on goal setting

Franklin International Institute, Inc., Corporate Headquarters: 2200 West Parkw
ay Boulevard, West Valley City, UT 84119-2331, (801) 975-1776; would serve as
a resource.

Stephen Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, would serve as anot
her resource.

I have two more in my home office. I will have to e-mail you from home.
Michele Mikkelsen, American University Library, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW,
Washington, D.C. 20016-8046 (202) 885-3234
Date: Mon, 8 Apr 1996 16:21:18 -0600 (MDT)
From: NOEL TERRY WAYNE <Terry.Noel@Colorado.EDU>
To: Effective Organizational Systems <eos@leonardo.net>
Subject: Re: Goal setting
MIME-Version: 1.0

Agood place to start is always Locke and Latham's (1990) book A Theory
of Goal Setting and Task Performance.

Terry W. Noel
Campus Box 419
University of Colorado/Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0419
V-mail: (303) 492-1175
Fax: (303) 492-5962
E-mail: Terry.Noel@Colorado.Edu

Date: Mon, 8 Apr 1996 16:22:07 -0600
From: ALAN SCHARF <ascharf@eagle.wbm.ca>
Subject: Re: Goal Setting

First you must define exactly what you mean by "goal" as distinct from
mission, aim, objective, purpose. function, value, target, vision, etc. The
popular dictionaries are of little help here. Every author uses these terms
differently, and usually inconsistently within his/her own writing.

Then you must make sure that you are talking about a personal goal, or the
goal of a system or solution that you are helping a group design.

Once you have done that, then you can answer the question, "What is the
purpose of the goal. The anwer to this question sometimes generates
suprising insights that cause the whole thrust of your endeavour to shift
before your very eyes.

This is a semantic jungle, but until you answer these questions, you really
can't move ahead.

For my own purposes, I put together a little 4-page mission dictionary that
may help. I'll snail mail you a copy if you will send a couple of dollars
for printing and postage.

Alan Scharf, Futurist and President
Scharf and Associates Creative Leap International
1137 Elliott Street, Saskatoon, SK. Canada S7N 0V4
Email: ascharf@eagle.wbm.ca Tel: 306/244-4164 Fax: 306/652-0633

From: Jcds@aol.com
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 10:09:32 -0400
To: eos@leonardo.net
Subject: goal setting

Valarie- one of the best goal-setting structures that we have found is basic
and simple - it is found in the _Fifth Discipline Fieldbook_ by Peter Senge,

I have modified his personal-vision setting process, moved into the shared
vision-setting process and the goals simply fall out of the vision, they are
the steps to reaching your vision - if it is true - it is time consuming and
creates some real soul-searching, but has always been on the mark for me and
my clients. - Jo

J.C. Dixon 201-228-7499
MatchPlay ...because change is inevitable and growth is optional!

From: rebs@freenet.edmonton.ab.ca
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 08:15:41 -0600 (MDT)
To: Effective Organizational Systems <eos@leonardo.net>
Subject: Re: Goal Setting
Mime-Version: 1.0

Hi Valerio

I have a seminar/workshop that I deliver called "the Power of One". The
premise is from the book of the same name (excellant read). It's based on
the belief that in all of us is a spark, flame or whatever that must
never be allowed to go out....that we must fan the flame. We do that by
being sure of our goals.

I start by doing some work around Vision, Mission and goals and strategies.
As individuals we must have apersonal vision. To often we set goal that don't
fit...that frustrate. That's because we haven't identified our Vision.

Vision come from values...what we hold to be valuable to us...they come from
family, friends, the environment. I would then go into a values
clarification excercise. The best one is to have a list of values on a
sheet of paper in 24 point type. Have the group tear the values into strps.
Next sort the "values" into 2 piles, high & low. We would next have them
sort theri values from lowest to highest. I usually tell a stroy of a trip
full of danger (the plane is leaking fuel an engine catches fire, which
of your values would you trade to put the fire out?)

This forces them to rank their values from lowest to higehst. It helps
them deal with values conflicts ie I want to succeed in my career/ I want
to have a strong family unit.

Next we create a mission statement based on our values. Usually this is
the toughest part. In a workshop I shoot for a draft only.

Next... you can't DO a value..so we set some goals that will move us
toward our values. ie good health is a value... a goal is to wiehg 175 lbs.
have more energy etc.

Next.... what ACTIVIES can I DO that will move me toward my goals? (Walk 1/2
hour everyday...take a vitamin supplement....drink eight glases of water)

and so on. You get the picture I'm sure.

A great refeerence manual/workshop guide is "Successful Self-Management"
by Paul R Timm - Crisp Publications415 949 4888.

Let me know if you need more.


Randy Shuttleworth Phone 403 455 6139
The Training Company
10958 116 Street 403 944 4689
Edmonton, Alberta Canada
T5H 3M6 FAX 403 944 4690

email: rebs@freenet.edmonton.ab.ca

Date: Tue, 9 Apr 96 13:00:21 EDT
From: Monica Shay <mshay@stern.nyu.edu>
To: eos@leonardo.net
Subject: goal setting

I think you would find it very worthwhile to contact the Dean of the Business
School at the University of Tampa, 40l W. Kennedy Blvd., Tampa, Fla. 33606.
His email address is: steve.stumpf@resnet.fmhi.usf.edu. Phone is
813-253-6271.(Name: Steve Stumpf). He was head of the Center for Leadership
there, and has written many books and articles on exactly the topics you
mentioned. Good luck. Monica Shay (mshay @stern.nyu.edu)

From: ZEMKE@aol.com
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 13:03:08 -0400
To: eos@leonardo.net
Subject: Re: Goal Setting

Look up Gary latham and Kenneth Wexley. Theirs is the most complete research
based work I know of..
r. Zemke

From: mmusone@pirnie.com
Date: Tue, 09 Apr 1996 13:18:21 -0400
Subject: Goal setting
Apparently-To: eos@leonardo.net

Ironically, the book "How to Conduct a Performance Appraisal" has a good
chapter on defining objectives. Objectives are not the same as goals, but
it may help.
I used some of the ideas identified in that chapter to put together a
training module on "Objective Setting" for our new performance appraisal

Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 11:51:00 -0400
From: "Brown, P.G. - USE hoqst1!pgb" <pgb@attquest.ho.att.com>
Subject: Re: Goal Setting -Reply

When I work with teams doing strategic planning, I start with
outcomes--i.e., a time-bounded vision. We then establish
qualitatively-framed goals (for a nearer timeframe) that would get
us to this vision, then qualitative objective measures that would
indicate achievement of those goals, then initiatives that would
support those objectives, then tasks that comprise those initiatives.
I like to use a matrix-diagram-based approach similar to Quality
Function Deployment (QFD) to document the team's work in the interest
of making the information visible and providing a platform for
future iteration.

This is akin to the process improvement approach called "backward
chaining," where I would first define the desired outcomes, then
design process performance requirements to achieve these, then
design processes that would meet those requirements.

Patrick Brown
Bell Laboratories

From: Michael McMaster <Michael@kbddean.demon.co.uk>
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 08:11:43 +0000
Subject: Goal Setting Inputs LO6556

Replying to LO6517 --

My goal setting process:

Ask people what they want to do
Post so they can see what others have said
Ask again (against the new knowledge)
Repeat until new goals stop appearing

Michael McMaster : Michael@kbddean.demon.co.uk
book cafe site : http://www.vision-nest.com/BTBookCafe
Intelligence is the underlying organisational principle
of the universe. Heraclitus
- --

Michael McMaster <Michael@kbddean.demon.co.uk>

The best information that I have seen on this is by Jim Rohn.

Jim Rohn International
6311 N. O'Connor Blvd., #100
Irving, TX 75039

I only replied directly as I assume you will post your summary and thus my
post to the LO list would be redundant.

Archie Kregear


From: Christian Giroux <lmccgir@lmc.ericsson.se>
Date: Fri, 19 Apr 1996 14:01:14 -0400
Subject: Goal Setting Inputs LO6812

Replying to LO6517 --

Valerio Pascotto was asking about facilitating a goal setting process.

In my experience, any process is good as long as all the concerned
people participate. What I find important however, is why the goals
are set. In most cases, they are "sold" by top management as a step
towards a vision, but in reality it is the minimum results expected
from a group or a person. I think any goal setting process will be
flawed if it's based on any of the two previous assumptions (which I'll
call the public and the private ones).

The reason I find the private one flawed is more obvious: it makes
the people's discretionnary effort out of management's reach. In
general, people will do as less as possible to reach the goal (which, I
agree, can be a whole lot if the goal is very lofty - another problem).
Once the goal is reached, little will be done to do better, to go

In the case of the public reason for goals, it gets flawed by private
reasons. Since the goals, in this point of view are steps towards a
vision, ball park figure is sufficient. But my experience shows me that
when these goals aren't met, well, too bad! In my view, there is no
definite plan to get to a vision so whether we actually meet the goal
is unimportant as long as we move towards the vision.

That where it gets interesting. Behaviorists have clearly demonstrated
that the best way to have people adopt new behaviors (move in a
direction, read towards a vision) is positive reinforcement. Goals
should be set to increase the number of occasions for positive
reinforcement (hence lofty goals are a problem). If they are not set
with that mindset, they tend to be coupled with negative consequences
(if you don't meet that goal you don't get your bonus, or you don't get
a good evalutation, or you get reprimanded...) and the performance of
the people is not maximized.

Since I've applied these with the people working with me, no matter
what was the process or how it was facilitated, when the people
understand the reason for goal setting - occasions for reinforcement,
people tend to agree rather quickly on what needs to be done (or how
much of it) and it tends to get done quicker. In a few occasions, we
had to review the goals upwards 5 or 6 times during the year - goals
we thought we balanced (not too lofty, not too easy) when we set them.

I hope this helps you, Valerio.


Christian Giroux
- --

Christian Giroux <lmccgir@lmc.ericsson.se>


eos@leonardo.net (Effective Organizational Systems)

Learning-org -- An Internet Dialog on Learning Organizations For info: <rkarash@karash.com> -or- <http://world.std.com/~lo/>