This time line is derived from various sources.

Date Events
7-Aug-42 US Marines land on Guadalcanal. Tulagi seaplane base taken. Japanese air units from Rabaul counter attack.
8-Aug Japanese air units (Bettys armed with Torpedos w/ Zero escrot attack, seeking US carriers. When not found, attack launched against USN landing and supply ships. No torpedo attack effective; most attackers destroyed.
9-Aug The airfield is taken. Due to the threat of enemy torpedo bombers, USN air cover - and most of the rest of the navy - pulls outs.
12-Aug Engineering unit arrives at Guadalcanal to complete the air field. Minor Japanese air attacks occur. The Japanese knew they did not have the density of aircraft to dislodge troops by bombardment, so they did not press the matter. They did not notice any work being performed on the airfield (by Marines by hand using captured Japanese equipment).
20-Aug With Henderson Field (basic runway) completed, Wildcats 19 and 12 Dauntlesses from MAG-23 fly in, having flown off USS Long Island from 190 miles out.
21-Aug to 15-Sep Series of almost daily Japanese raids all between 1100 and 1400 hrs, attempting to close the airstrip or damage the few reinfrocement vessels sent. USMC sends attack missions against Japanese reinfrocement convoys (Tokyo Express) and occaisionally direct air support missions.
22-Aug 19 P-400s (P-39Ds) from USAAC 67th Fighter Squadron fly into Henderson field.
24/25-Aug Battle of the Eastern Solomons. IJN moves to catch US carriers. USS Enterprise and IJN Zuikaku damaged, IJN Ryujo sunk.
31-Aug USS Saratoga sunk by IJN submarine. Survivors of the air group sent to Guadalcanal as reinforcements.
15-Sep to 1-Oct Build-up of air units on both sides. Japanese beef up 11th Air Fleet.
9-Oct Japanese open Buin air field. 7 of the initial 15 Zeros damaged on landing.

VMF-121 adds 20 Wildcats, plus 5 SBDs and 3 TBFs.
14/15-Oct Major Japanese reinforcement convoy lands 5000 troops. Battleships and heavy cruisers bombard Henderson Field, destroying or damaging all bombers and 1/3 of the fighters available. However, a handful are repaired before the end of the day and are sent to chase off the reinforcement convoy.
24/26-Oct 11th Air Fleet awaiting outcome of land battles to seize Henderson Field. Units standing by for transfer.
26/27-Oct Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. Henderson field aircraft participate. USS Hornet sunk, Junyo and Shokaku damaged.
12/13-Nov Sea battle of Guadalcanal. USN receives more damage, but spooks the Japanese out of shelling Henderson Field. IJN Hiei receives rudder damage in a night battle, and is sunk the next under repeated attacks from Henderson Field. That night, USN battleship task force engages another Japanese force shelling Henderson, sinking the IJN Isa.
14/16-Nov The Japanese send a major reinforcemnt convoy. More than half of it is damaged or sunk by aircraft from Henderson Field before it reaches Guadalcanal.
Dec-42 After the damage sustained to the November reinforcement convoy, and the failure to maintain a level of resupply required to sustain the 17th Army on Guadalcanal, the Japanese admit defeat. Thay change to a defensive strategy. They devise Operation KE to evacuate as many of the 17th Army as possible, and then to set up a line of defense scross the middle of the Solomon Islands. JAAF 6th Hikotai (110 aircraft) moved from China to New Guinea and Rabaul.

US manages major reinforcement of Guadalcanal land and air units.
Feb-43 Last Japanese infantry units evacuated. Guadalcanal declared safe by US Forces. US looks toward advancing up the Solomon Islands.